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euclid
11-21-2014, 05:53 PM
I'm looking for help from a pilot.

I need to be taken through the controls of a Junkers 52/3m three motor troop transport WW2 aircraft.

I have a photo of the controls from Wikipedia.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_Ju_52#mediaviewer/File:Junkers_JUn52_cockpit.JPG

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junkers_Ju_52#mediaviewer/File:Junkers_JUn52_cockpit.JPG

JJ

cmhbob
11-21-2014, 08:21 PM
I'm not a pilot, but I do know that the Junkers was not a turboprop aircraft. It had three radial engines. Turboprops didn't fly until after World War II, at least according to the Wiki article.

euclid
11-21-2014, 08:25 PM
Thanks for that, Bob. I've no idea what a radial engine is, or a turboprop for that matter. I just know that the Junkers 52 had 3 engines. I need information about the controls.

What is the difference between radial and turboprop?

JJ

cbenoi1
11-21-2014, 08:40 PM
Radial engine: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z4Dg7JuH-48

Turboprop: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=teICr3Yg14U


WW2-era airplane engines needed a lot more manual tuning than the more modern airplanes we see today. That's why it's not unusual to see a 'third' pilot - called the flight engineer - in the cockpit of the larger aircrafts and whose role was to supervise the engines and related systems. Fuel flow. Oil temperature and pressure. Hydraulics. Cylinder temperature. Exhaust gas temperature. Manifold pressure. Carburetor flow. Propeller RPM. Carburetor mixture.

If you want to have a taste of what it's like to operate a WW2-era cargo plane, I suggest you watch the reality-TV show "Ice Pilots NWT". It's the story of real-world Buffalo Airways who operate Douglas DC-3 and DC-4 airplanes in the Canadian Northwest territories. You can find many episodes online on YouTube. Many of those have in-cockpit sequences in which pilots explain what they are doing.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M2aP1NthbVY&list=UU2lOE9zII8N1wGZPjIix4xw


-cb

euclid
11-21-2014, 08:52 PM
Thanks for that. It seems a turboprop might be a sort of jet engine? I'm glad I only have to learn how to control 3 radial engines :)

I've removed the word "turboprop" from the original post.

JJ

Trebor1415
11-22-2014, 01:47 PM
What do you need specifically? A bit of flavor for a cockpit scene? A full run down on all the instruments? A general understanding of how the plane was flown? etc

euclid
11-22-2014, 01:50 PM
Hi Trebor, I need a run down on the main instruments, and maybe some guidance on how the plane would react if it lost one of its engines.

JJ

alleycat
11-22-2014, 02:06 PM
I used to be a private pilot and might be able to help a little, but I don't know anything about flying a WWII era tri-motor. The biggest problem with a multi-engine plane is losing one engine on take-off.

Just let me know if I can be of any help.

They used to bring an old Ford Tri-Motor to air shows and give rides. If I remember correctly, if that plane lost just one engine it was in big trouble.

euclid
11-22-2014, 02:26 PM
Hi Alleycat, Thanks for responding. What I had in mind was losing the engine on the nose in the sky well after takeoff, but before landing. I don't think my civilian pilot would land the plane if he had to keep it level. I thought the loss of the nose engine would tend to lower the nose and create some drag... If you look at the picture of the cockpit you'll see lots of controls in sets of 3 (red and black ones) on the pilot's side and on the co-pilot's side. Also, some red valve screws (fuel controls?) beside the wireless on the co-pilot side, and about 6 similar valves (black) in front of the pilot. I'm not sure why there are so many of these. Also, don't know what the controls in front of the co-pilot are for (bomb release, maybe?). JJ

euclid
11-22-2014, 02:32 PM
Bomb release makes no sense. This is a troop transport. Oops!

alleycat
11-22-2014, 02:47 PM
Again, I don't know anything about that plane or tri-motors.

Generally, losing one engine in flight isn't that bad on a multi-engine plane (assuming calm weather conditions). These days the propeller of the engine that is out is "feathered"--that is, the blades of the propeller are turned so that they produce less drag. Losing the central engine of a tri-motor should be less of a problem.

I would have to do some research myself to understand the controls in the picture you linked. I might guess that some of those valves are fuel tank valves, but I really have no idea. Fuel tank management is a bigger task on planes with multiple fuel tanks, at least on smaller planes and possibly older planes.

The bottom three levers on the pilot's side are fuel mixture controls (the top three being power).

alleycat
11-22-2014, 03:08 PM
This video might be on some interest to you.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yOW4GR4M0LM

euclid
11-22-2014, 04:56 PM
That video was a great help, Alleycat, thanks.

Apparently, there's a Junkers 52/3m in Britain somewhere owned by a company called "Aces High". They use it for film work (e.g. Indiana Jones).

JJ

alleycat
11-22-2014, 05:00 PM
I found a photo of a similar cockpit with the controls labeled, but unfortunately they were numbered and I couldn't find a legend for what each number was. You might have better luck; I only make a quick search. I also found a better photo with the control labels clearly visible but they were in German.

euclid
11-22-2014, 05:04 PM
Where's the photo with the german labels? I have a dictionary.

JJ

alleycat
11-22-2014, 05:18 PM
I just did a Google search for the Junkers "cockpit controls" and looked at the photos. There are a number of photos of similar cockpits, some of them better than the one in the wiki link.

euclid
11-22-2014, 06:08 PM
I followed you into googleland and found a diagram of the instrument panel with German legend (from a Greek diving expedition at a sunken J52/3m wreck). I'm still hoping to get some info about the controls, especially those weird handles on the co-pilot side.

euclid
11-22-2014, 06:10 PM
Couldn't find "Aces High". There must be a pilot in the UK somewhere who knows how to fly this airplane.

euclid
11-22-2014, 06:28 PM
Alleycat: How would you turn right? I'm assuming this would take a combination of stick movement to the right and some action with the pedals?

JJ

Aerial
11-22-2014, 06:48 PM
Alleycat: How would you turn right? I'm assuming this would take a combination of stick movement to the right and some action with the pedals?

JJ

The cockpit photos show a control wheel, not a stick. So to turn right, you would rotate the control wheel to the right. If you did nothing else, this would cause the airplane to roll to the right and begin a turn. The steepness of the turn would depend on the bank angle you rolled to. However, due to the aerodynamic properties of aircraft, the nose of the airplane would try to rotate away from the direction of turn as you rolled into the turn. This kind of turn is called an uncoordinated turn, and pilot's don't like it.

To coordinate the turn, the pilot would "add rudder" by pushing on the correct pedal in the cockpit to compensate. He would be able to see that his turn was coordinated by looking at the slip-skid indicator. If the slip-skid indicator is centered, the aircraft is making a coordinated turn. From the pictures I found by googling, I can't tell if the Junkers had a slip-skid indicator and I don't know much about that era of aircraft. It's a fairly simply instrument, and from the level of instrumentation in that cockpit I would guess they did have one. I just can't say for sure.

Aerial

euclid
11-22-2014, 06:58 PM
Thanks for that Aerial. I have numbered list of all the instruments in german. I'll translate them and see if I can find a "slip-skid".

Do you have any idea what the handles in front of the co-pilot are for?
They look a bit like ski poles with loop handles on.

Aerial
11-22-2014, 08:16 PM
Thanks for that Aerial. I have numbered list of all the instruments in german. I'll translate them and see if I can find a "slip-skid".

Do you have any idea what the handles in front of the co-pilot are for?
They look a bit like ski poles with loop handles on.

They look like they're probably engine controls of some sort (if I'm looking at the same thing you are) since there are three of them. The pilots would need to be able to regulate things like fuel mixture, prop pitch (if they were variable pitch props, which I don't know), prop speed, etc.

Sorry, prop is short for propeller.

A little bit about engines: Many aircraft, especially older ones, use piston engine technology fairly similar to car or truck engines. These engines turn propellers to give the aircraft its thrust. Propeller aircraft today use avgas, which basically aviation-specific gasoline. Some aircraft have used diesel, but I don't know any details, and I don't know for sure what your Junkers would have used. The term "turboprop" refers to a turbocharged engine (the technology is just like a turbocharger in a car) used to turn the propeller. Radial engines are also piston engines but have the cylinders arranged in a circle instead of in rows like a car engine.

Jets are an entirely different type of engine. They do not have cylinders and pistons and instead depend on the burning of the compressed fuel-air mixture to generate the necessary thrust as it's expelled. Jets use a different kind of fuel, more akin to kerosene than gasoline, and do not have a propeller on the front of them.

Aerial

cbenoi1
11-22-2014, 08:16 PM
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NANgA3gaPak

-cb

euclid
11-22-2014, 11:59 PM
Thanks for that simviation video, cb.

Aerial: I can only see 2 of those ski pole type controls on the co-pilot side.

JJ

ClareGreen
11-23-2014, 12:31 AM
Not a pilot, just grew up around aircraft.

The Junkers 52 has three radial engines, so anything you can see three identical ones of is to do with the engines. That takes care of a lot of the centre console and the instruments just above it. (Turboprops are not piston engines, they're jets, despite having a propellor; these are piston engines.) Radial engines are powerful but bulky, ideal for aviation but difficult to shoehorn into the more limited space available in a car, and have a very distinctive sound.

It's difficult to work out what some of the other instruments are from that picture; the compass is the pilot's centre-top flat thing, turn-and-slip is the centre-middle and attitude is centre-bottom. The others I'm not sure about, but altitude and air speed indicators will definitely be part of it, along with any navigational instruments this thing has - VOR/DME, for example.

In this as in several other aircraft of the era it looks as though the copilot also got the engine and fuel management jobs, and the daisy-like turny things on the right are almost certainly to do with plumbing, so probably fuel (those are classic plumbing fixtures, so there almost have to be pipes of some sort involved; coolant with radials is IIRC usually dealt with in the individual engine and only monitored from the cockpit and oil works likewise, leaving only fuel to be supplied). The co-pilot needs a set of the pilot's instruments, so anything on that side but not mirrored on the pilot's is probably to do with engines and fuel.

Hope that helps!

euclid
11-23-2014, 01:26 AM
Hi Clare. I worked out the 3 engines = 3 controls idea. But why does the co-pilot have 3 throttles and 3 other levers (with black nobs on) that seem to occupy the same area as the throttles? Also, what on earth are the 2 levers between the co-pilot's legs?
I have attempted to translate the instrument panel from german.

Aerial
11-23-2014, 01:45 AM
(Turboprops are not piston engines, they're jets, despite having a propellor; these are piston engines.)

Oops! You're right. That's what I get for doing anything before coffee.

Aerial

cbenoi1
11-23-2014, 03:17 AM
The three black levers are the throttle. The red levers just underneath and occupying the same vertical slot are for the mixture. The higher the airplane goes, the thinner the air is, thus the need to adjust the air/fuel ratio going up and down. The red levers on the right appear to be either emergency extinguishers or some sort of propeller angle adjustment. It's on the right side because engine performance fine-tuning is a co-pilot's responsibility. The faucets under the co-pilot dashboard are related to the cowlings. Opening / closing the cowlings controls the amount of incoming air that cools the engine. Piston engines tend to have a peek in performance within a narrow temperature range. Even the more modern Cessna models (notably the C210) have a lever to control cowling air intake flaps.

Don't be fooled by images you see on the net. Many JU52/3m have been modified to make them airworthy according to current standards. It's not uncommon to find a 'converted' airplane to have modern instruments like VOR radios and an HSI. The Junkers that appear to be genuine have nothing more than a compass, a turn coordinator, an altimeter, and a very crude attitude indicator (a painted ball floating in oil). I'm not even sure they had airspeed and VSI indicators back then.


-cb

Deb Kinnard
11-23-2014, 03:33 AM
If you need specific control labels translated from German into English, shoot me a PM. I'm still reasonably fluent and I have a private pilot for a husband, who's heavily into WWII aircraft.

euclid
11-24-2014, 10:58 PM
Thanks, Deb, will do.
JJ

euclid
11-24-2014, 11:01 PM
CB: You seem to be suggesting that the pilot sits on the left (looking forward from behind the cockpit). Is this correct? I don't know why, but I thought the pilot sat on the right.

JJ

euclid
11-24-2014, 11:03 PM
Deb: I don't have German labels for the controls, only for the instruments. Really, the instruments are not as important to me as the controls.

JJ

euclid
11-24-2014, 11:14 PM
CB: They did have VSI
I found it on the instrument panel: Variometer -10 to +10 m/s

and air speed indicator: Fahrtmesser 80-450 km/h and "oder" 60-550km/h. Fahrt = "ride" = speed, I assume. Messer = measure. Not sure what "oder" means.

JJ

ClareGreen
11-25-2014, 12:58 AM
Pilot is on the left, yes. Pilot on the right is helicopters.

Deb Kinnard
11-25-2014, 02:36 AM
Pilots traditionally reserve the left seat for the captain or senior officer. The junior guy or gal sits on the right.

euclid
11-26-2014, 02:54 AM
I still have no idea what those 2 ski poles with loops on between the pilot's legs are for.

Anyone?

JJ

jimmymc
11-26-2014, 03:17 AM
Probably brake levers, but I'm just guessing.

alleycat
11-26-2014, 03:24 AM
Braking would be my guess as well (but guess is all it is). On modern planes the rudder pedals also serve as brake and steering pedals.

When someone first starts to fly a plane they will often try to use the yoke to steer the plane when it's on the ground (similar to using a steering wheel in a car). Some instructors will make a student put his hands in his lap until he gets used to steering with his feet.

cbenoi1
11-26-2014, 09:17 PM
Parking brakes, rudder trim, rudder position adjustment (as the seats appear to be fixed), or water rudder up/down (floatplane configuration). Just brakes would make it difficult for the pilot to taxi.

Euclid, just curious as to why you need to go to that level of detail. Only JU52 pilots - and there are not that many - could possibly pinpoint factual errors in your manuscript.

ETA: Short of becoming a private pilot, many flights schools in the US and Canada offer a one-day 'Discovery Flight' day package for around $250 (for example: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fMQBriM-tP0 ). This comprises 1 - 2 hours of ground school, and an hour of actual flying time in a Cessna as the pilot. The program I often read on the web include two landings and takeoffs, stalls, and commercial turns (high bank angles). Make sure you ask for a 'steam gauges' plane as opposed to a 'glass cockpit' one if you want to have a better understanding of older technology.

-cb

euclid
12-05-2014, 02:16 PM
I don't need too much detail. Just the basics of the controls. Actually, I've written the scene, now. The plane is attacked, the pilot shot up, and my hero has to land the plane - that was the original idea. That's not how it turned out.

The pilot is blinded, so he can still operate the controls. My hero just has to read out the altitude and airspeed, keep an eye on the artificial horizon and make sure the plane's nose stays up, oh and tell the pilot how far he is from the runway. And help him to line up the plane on the approach.

Here's what I have. Comments and suggestions welcome.

“What do I do?” said Kurt.
“You’re doing fine. Just watch our altitude. Make sure I keep her level and make sure our air speed doesn’t drop below 100.”
Felix described the landing procedure in detail. Felix would execute the landing; Kurt would be his eyes. At the end of the lesson, Kurt was less than confident that they would make it down safely. He told Felix how he was feeling.
“It’s a doddle. Don’t worry about it,” said Felix.
They had flown across the water for close to two hours before Kurt saw land ahead and Ashford airfield established contact.
“This is RAF Ashford. Come in Alfa Victor Oscar.”
“This is Alfa Victor Oscar,” Felix replied. “Has Squadron Leader Hazelwood informed you of our situation?”
“Roger. You have lost an engine and are injured. We will be ready for you here. Please adjust your heading to 035. Wind speed on the ground is five to seven. We have a slight haze. The field is clear for you.”
With Kurt reading out their headings, Felix executed a reasonable turn to the right and placed the plane on the required heading.
“Altitude?”
“900 metres.”
“Air speed?”
“100.”
“Are we level?”
“Yes.”
“We should be reducing altitude.”
“We are. We’re at 850 and dropping.”
“Keep an eye on that. Let me know if it drops too quickly.”
“How quickly is too quickly?”
“50 meters every 3 minutes should be about right.”
Kurt said, “Air speed’s dropping. It’s at 90.”
Felix increased power. “Can you see the airfield yet?”
“Air speed 95. And no. I see land, but no airfield.”
Soon they were flying over land and Kurt could see that the plane was descending steadily. He broke out in a sweat as he relayed the instrument readings to Felix.
“I see the airfield!” said Kurt.
“Are we lined up on a runway?”
“Nearly. We need to move a smidgen to the right.”
“A smidgen.” Felix made a slight adjustment.
“That’s perfect,” said Kurt.
“Altitude and air speed?”
“300 metres and 70.”
Felix increased power.
“Tell me if the nose dips. We need to keep the nose up.”
“Right. Altitude 260 metres, air speed 80.”
“How far to the runway?”
“About another runway.”
“Speed looks good, but you’re coming in a little high,” said the man on the ground.
Felix, used the flaps. Kurt felt the plane braking in mid air.
Felix said, “Tell me when we’re over the start of the runway, and tell me when we’re at the level of the tops of the buildings.”
“We’ve just passed the start of the runway,” Kurt shouted.
“How high are we?”
“50 metres.”
“Ignore the altimeter. Look out the window.”
“Tops of the buildings,” said Kurt, gripping the edge of his seat.
“What about now?”
Tops of telegraph poles. Nose dipping.”
Felix lifted the nose and cut the two engines completely. A klaxon sounded.
“What’s that noise?” Kurt shouted.
“Don’t worry about it,” said Felix. “Hold on to your seat.”
The landing was a rough one, but they made it in one piece. Felix applied the brakes, and they came to a halt 20 metres before the end of the runway.
“Good luck,” said the Hurricane Squadron Leader. He made a pass overhead, waggled his wings at them.
“Congratulations!” said the air traffic controller. “Welcome home.”

alleycat
12-05-2014, 02:50 PM
It's a little early where I am to be reading for comprehension and comment; I'll come back and read it again when I'm more awake.

You're close to having it basically right (at least for a story). There is a vertical airspeed indicator that they would probably want to watch. Also, the pilot would probably adjust the flaps earlier.

Assuming they have plenty of runway, coming in high would be okay.

Instead of saying "Felix lifted the nose" you might have him gradually pull back on the yoke and add just a little more detail at that point as the plane touches down. He shouldn't be hearing the stall warning (he's not going to pull the nose up that much).

Again, I'm on my first cup of coffee . . .

euclid
12-05-2014, 03:18 PM
Get that second cup of coffee :)

alleycat
12-05-2014, 03:29 PM
There's a certain "feeling" a pilot gets right before touchdown. He's got the flaps down, the airspeed slowed, he knows he's only a couple of meters from the ground, he's pulling back on the yoke to control his vertical airspeed (to almost nothing), and he's waiting for the tires to touch the runway before gently pushing the yoke forward. It's a little like feeling weightless because he's been feeling the vertical airspeed and now there is a sense of little or no vertical speed. It's a little hard to explain. I don't know that you need that detail in your story but it might help to understand a typical landing for a pilot.

You might want the airfield to report the direction of the wind and runway number to land on (if there is more than one).

euclid
12-05-2014, 03:32 PM
"yoke"?

alleycat
12-05-2014, 03:48 PM
Yoke is the same thing as stick or control column. I'm not sure what they called it for the plane you're using. It controls the ailerons and elevators (for pitch and roll).

euclid
12-05-2014, 03:57 PM
What's the difference between

"flaps"
"ailerons" and
"elevators"

?

Pitch and roll?

It's just as well this is only a fictional exercise :)

alleycat
12-05-2014, 04:11 PM
I'll try to keep it simple.

There are three main surface controls for an aircraft: ailerons to control roll (the planes rolls over to the left or to the right), elevators to control pitch (nose up or nose down), and rudder to control yaw (the "skew" of the airplane). A pilot turns an airplane by using the ailerons and then using the rudder to control how the plane turns--it's not like a boat rudder. He can also use the elevators and throttle to control his airspeed and whether he loses altitude or not during a turn. He can trade off a little airspeed during a gentle turn or he can apply a little more throttle. This would be so much easier to explain if we were sitting together using a little model airplane; it's not really as complicated as I've probably made it sound.

Ailerons are on each wing (the further part of the wing) and move in opposite directions (if one is up the other is down), elevators on the rear of the airplane move in the same direction, and the rudder moves side to side. Flaps are on the inside part of each wing and are adjustable by degree (10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees).

Flaps are used during takeoffs and landing to change the lift (and drag) of the wings. During normal flight an airplane doesn't need that extra lift (or want that extra drag).

There are also trim tabs, but I don't think you need to know much about those. Those just make it easier for the pilot. He can "trim" the aircraft so he doesn't have to hold the yoke back or forward so much during flight.

euclid
12-05-2014, 05:42 PM
Okay. That was helpful. Now could you tell me where are the controls for flaps, ailerons, elevators and rudder. Which of these is controlled by the foot controls?

thanks
JJ

alleycat
12-05-2014, 06:02 PM
The stick (or yoke, or control column) controls the ailerons by pushing or turning it left or right. Push the stick to the left (or turning the yoke counterclockwise) would make the plane roll over to the left (the left aileron would go up, the right aileron would go down). Pulling back on the stick or yoke control the elevators (pull back=nose up, push forward=nose down). The rudder is controlled by the foot pedals. The foot pedals also control the brakes and the steering (push the left pedal=the rudder will turn towards the left, push the right pedal=the rudder will turn towards the right).

The flaps are usually controlled by some kind of small lever with a marking for the degrees the flaps will be lowered (10, 20, 30).

I'm referring to modern aircraft. They may have used something slightly different for the pedals in the old days. They may have had a separate control for the brakes (I'm just not sure). Almost all modern aircraft (except for some crop dusting or bush planes) have what is called a tricycle gear (the main wheels are at about the center of the plane and one wheel in front). On older planes they used what is called a "tail dragger"--that is, the main wheels are about at the center of the plane and one small wheel at the rear of the plane. Tail draggers are considered more sturdy for some landing strips (which is why they are still preferred by bush pilots and such). On a rough field a tricycle gear could have a problem if the pilot brings that front wheel down too soon.

Most WWII aircraft were tail draggers.

euclid
12-09-2014, 02:44 AM
Junkers 52/3m is definitely a tail dragger.

I've established contact with a friend who's a retired airline pilot. He's being very helpful. He reckons the ski poles between the pilot's legs are brakes. He's not convinced that the faucets in front of the co-pilot are for controlling air flow over the engines, but hasn't yet suggested what they might be.

Deb Kinnard
12-09-2014, 04:15 AM
Back upthread a ways-- "oder" in German simply means "or."

euclid
12-09-2014, 05:25 AM
Yes, but on its own what does it mean? What I have is:
Fahrtmesser 80 - 450 km/h (which I think means airspeed) and on the next line:
oder 60 - 550 km/h
?

Prophetsnake
12-19-2014, 04:22 AM
Hi. I'll have a go at this.


I don't need too much detail. Just the basics of the controls. Actually, I've written the scene, now. The plane is attacked, the pilot shot up, and my hero has to land the plane - that was the original idea. That's not how it turned out.

The pilot is blinded, so he can still operate the controls. My hero just has to read out the altitude and airspeed, keep an eye on the artificial horizon and make sure the plane's nose stays up, oh and tell the pilot how far he is from the runway. And help him to line up the plane on the approach.

Here's what I have. Comments and suggestions welcome.

[QUOTE]“What do I do?” said Kurt.
“You’re doing fine. Just watch our altitude. Make sure I keep her level and make sure our air speed doesn’t drop below 100.”
Felix described the landing procedure in detail. Felix would execute the landing; Kurt would be his eyes. At the end of the lesson, Kurt was less than confident that they would make it down safely. He told Felix how he was feeling.
“It’s a doddle. Don’t worry about it,” said Felix.
They had flown across the water for close to two hours before Kurt saw land ahead and Ashford airfield established contact.
“This is RAF Ashford. Come in Alfa Victor Oscar.”
“This is Alfa Victor Oscar,” Felix replied. “Has Squadron Leader Hazelwood informed you of our situation?”

The modern phonetic alphabet is different from the WW2 variety. And the Brits had their own - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAF_phonetic_alphabet



“Roger. You have lost an engine and are injured. We will be ready for you here. Please adjust your heading to 035. Wind speed on the ground is five to seven. We have a slight haze. The field is clear for you.”
With Kurt reading out their headings, Felix executed a reasonable turn to the right and placed the plane on the required heading.

The heading direction of the time would have been a little different, but that would complicate the story ( Q -codes. If you want authenticity, look them up, but I wouldn't bother unless you are writing for pilots.) I'd write out the heading as zero-three-five and give a direction for the wind - north-westerly at six knots. Nowadays they use numerical bearing for the wind, but they did not do that then. The rest is okay.



“Altitude?”
“900 metres.”
“Air speed?”
“100.”
“Are we level?”
“Yes.”
“We should be reducing altitude.”
“We are. We’re at 850 and dropping.”
“Keep an eye on that. Let me know if it drops too quickly.”
“How quickly is too quickly?”
“50 meters every 3 minutes should be about right.”
Kurt said, “Air speed’s dropping. It’s at 90.”
Felix increased power. “Can you see the airfield yet?”
“Air speed 95. And no. I see land, but no airfield.”
Soon they were flying over land and Kurt could see that the plane was descending steadily. He broke out in a sweat as he relayed the instrument readings to Felix.
“I see the airfield!” said Kurt.
“Are we lined up on a runway?”
“Nearly. We need to move a smidgen to the right.”
“A smidgen.” Felix made a slight adjustment.
“That’s perfect,” said Kurt.
“Altitude and air speed?”
“300 metres and 70.”
Felix increased power.
“Tell me if the nose dips. We need to keep the nose up.”
“Right. Altitude 260 metres, air speed 80.”
“How far to the runway?”
“About another runway.”
“Speed looks good, but you’re coming in a little high,” said the man on the ground.
Felix, used the flaps. Kurt felt the plane braking in mid air.


I can't see anything that would make me cringe in there, but
instead of 'used the flaps' you might say 'extended the flaps' and if you are in Felix's head he would not think braking there, he's probably feel it 'ballooning'. Having said that, ballooning would be an expression only a pilot would know.
By the way, the engine that was shut down would make a huge difference in a blind man's ability to control the machine. Either of the outboards out would make it very difficult for him due to asymmetric thrust. It can be trimmed out easily, but with configuration ( flaps) and power changes it would have to be done accurately, smoothly and very quickly or he'd lose control. With the number two out, he wouldn't have that problem, but he could have a windscreen full of oil if you would like to provide an additional challenge!
Use of meters is correct, by the way. That's what the Germans used til the end of WW2. Meters are still used in a lot of eastern Europe as well as China.


Felix said, “Tell me when we’re over the start of the runway, and tell me when we’re at the level of the tops of the buildings.”
“We’ve just passed the start of the runway,” Kurt shouted.
“How high are we?”
“50 metres.”
“Ignore the altimeter. Look out the window.”
“Tops of the buildings,” said Kurt, gripping the edge of his seat.
“What about now?”
Tops of telegraph poles. Nose dipping.”
Felix lifted the nose and cut the two engines completely. A klaxon sounded.
“What’s that noise?” Kurt shouted.
“Don’t worry about it,” said Felix. “Hold on to your seat.”
The landing was a rough one, but they made it in one piece. Felix applied the brakes, and they came to a halt 20 metres before the end of the runway.
“Good luck,” said the Hurricane Squadron Leader. He made a pass overhead, waggled his wings at them.
“Congratulations!” said the air traffic controller. “Welcome home.”

This is a little more difficult for me to swallow. I think a better way to get them on the ground in one piece would be for felix to tell Kurt this: Right, I want the runway about ten centimetres up the windscreen during our approach. I want you to mark that spot in your head and ten me I need to go 'up' or 'down'. Then I want you to call out the airspeed. If it stays at eighty, say nothing. For heading, say left, right, or stop if I am on the money."
Over the end of the runway, he would squeezel the throttles back a few inches and level the nose and then hold it there until touchdown. Just yanking the stick fully back could be very messy. During the flare the rate of adjustment to get it right is rapid and it would be impossible for Kurt to relay it quickly enough even if he knew what he was supposed to be looking for.
A WW2 era JU 52 would not have a stall warning system. Preserved examples may have, but in WW2, definitely not.

By the way, I used to fly DC3s for a living as well as C-45s. If I got stuck like these guys this is what I would do.

There was a B 24 that got shot up in the Pacific and the pilot was blinded. The FO was killed and the flighty engineer had to talk the blind pilot back to base. That story is told in a book called 'Log of the Liberators'

Good luck with this. You can PM me if you have any questions.

Prophetsnake
12-19-2014, 04:32 AM
Junkers 52/3m is definitely a tail dragger.

I've established contact with a friend who's a retired airline pilot. He's being very helpful. He reckons the ski poles between the pilot's legs are brakes. He's not convinced that the faucets in front of the co-pilot are for controlling air flow over the engines, but hasn't yet suggested what they might be.

They're almost certainly for fuel management. An airplane this size has tanks all over the place.

euclid
12-19-2014, 04:35 AM
Many thanks, Prophetsnake. Very helpful all round. What part of Ireland are you in? I'm in Wicklow. JJ

Prophetsnake
12-19-2014, 04:49 AM
The rudder pedals on this airplane have brakes. They are operated by pressing on the bottom with your heels, as opposed to the arrangement on most modern aircraft, which have toe brakes. Only the left seater has brakes.

I can't identify all of the levers, but I do know what must be there.
Throttle, (black tops) manifold heat are probably the red handled levers just below them. mixture the three small ones in front of them and props would be the red levers to the right. The round wheel next to the pilot's seat is pitch trim. There are controls somewhere for oil radiator shutters, oil bypass, magnetos, an exciter circuit for starting the engines, generator control relays, battery switches and knowing the Germans, at least three completely pointless refinements simply because they're German. I have flown an ME 208 and it was complicated beyond belief for what it was.

Prophetsnake
12-19-2014, 04:53 AM
Oh! I am in Meath. I had a brief visit to the cockpit of the one that was at DUB before they moved it. 1982.

Prophetsnake
12-19-2014, 04:56 AM
And I am going to guess at the cryptic airspeed limitations. oder means 'or' It's probable that there is one set of figures for an empty airplane and another for a full one, but it could be down to configuration - i.e. set up for paratroop deployment or something like that.
There are some serious aerosexuals at this place that might be able to help you out, though.

http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=182771&start=75